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20 Types Of Construction Vehicles : Names & Their Functions

20 Types Of Construction Vehicles : Names & Their Functions

With ever-increasing skyscrapers, construction work requires better results in a short period. To reduce the workload and human labor, construction vehicles came to the rescue.

Though you might have come across a couple of JCB bulldozers, there are more than 16 types of construction vehicles. How many of them do you already know? Here’s a rundown of all the major construction vehicles that are widely used.

9 Different Types Of Construction Vehicles: Names & Their Functions

1) Bulldozers

Let’s start with the obvious. Bulldozers (1) are incredibly bulky tractors equipped with metal blades in the front and rippers at the back.

Due to their sturdy built, bulldozers are used in (2) mining, building roads, apartments, and clearing land.

The metal blades come in three varieties-

  • Straight blade
  • Semi-Universal blade
  • Universal blade

The blades are used to push or shove objects, dirt, snow, etc. and remove them from the construction site. The ripper is used to claw at the ground and break stones into smaller pieces. 

2) Trenchers

As the name suggests, a trencher (3) is used to dig trenches for laying pipes and electrical wires in any neighborhood.

There are mainly 5 types of trenchers-

  • Wheel trenchers– They have a giant wheel that is used in cutting roads for road maintenance.
  • Chain trenchers– These have a chainsaw attached at the back that is used for cutting hard surfaces. Chain trenchers are used to digging deep surfaces required for sanitation, drainage, and other uses.
  • Micro-trenchers– They are also used in cutting roads but produce very little waste. This makes them convenient to be used on roads without damaging them too much.
  • Portable trenchers– As you might have guessed, these are very lightweight and are typically used in gardens or small farms that require drainage.

Trenchers can serve several purposes (4) depending on their types. They are versatile and are thoroughly used in farming.

3) Front loaders

The front loader (5) is a tractor that has a wide-mouthed bucket used to lift material from the ground. They are relatively low in cost and serve several farm activities. The best part is you can replace the bucket with other parts like forks. 

Front-loaders can be used to transport heavy construction materials from one place to another. They are also used to clear thick layers of snow in a short period.

4) Hydraulic excavators

Unlike available tractors, hydraulic excavators (6) use hydraulic fluid, pumps, and motors to lift, dig, or mine construction sites. They consist of a rotating area that contains a boom, stick, cab, and 

Hydraulic excavators attain great power by attaching the engine power to hydraulic pumps that provide high-pressure oil.

They are extensively used for demolition of buildings, clearing forests, mining, dreading, and others.

In recent times, manufacturers have introduced mini or compact excavators portable and even include zero tail swing.

They are ideal for small area digging. Tata Hitachi Construction Ministry, Hyundai Heavy Industries are some of the largest manufacturers of such excavators.

5)Forklifts

You have probably seen a forklift in a Walmart store. Forklifts (7) are heavy-duty vehicles that are used for loading and unloading equipment or goods. They can carry 1 to five tons of weight and are most commonly used in warehouses.

Forklifts work with the help of two hydraulic cylinders and a pair of chain pulleys. When the lift handle is pressed, the hydraulic pump sets into action and draws in air. This forces the cylinders to lift the load up. 

The forks are attached to the vehicle via a pair of chain pulleys. These chain pulleys enable the forks to shift the goods to a farther distance. 

6)Concrete mixer trucks

concrete mixer truck (8) is a carrier vehicle that mixes water, cement, stones, and other components required for urban buildings.

It has a large drum with a spiral blade for mixing the constituents and converting them to a coarse paste. 

The mixture remains in the liquid from inside the truck but solidifies when poured outside.

This is why the trucks always pour the mixture in arrays of buckets or containers, then transported it to the construction site. 

Mixer trucks make portability easy and are available at affordable prices as well. 

7) Crawler dozers

Crawler dozers (9) are robust vehicles that have tracked wheels and are suitable for rough terrain. They have more stability due to their broad surface area but are agile. 

The addition of modern features like power steering and comfort makes these dozers perfect for construction work and maintaining roads.

Also, new crawler dozers come with safety precautions and are much more energy-efficient. 

8)Compactors

Compactors are used to reduce the mass and size of waste generated in any field. Technically, there are three types of compactors-

  • The plate
  • The rammer
  • The road roller

Different compactors (10) are used to compress the junk collected by waste collection vehicles.

In agriculture, these vehicles are used to expel oxygen from food wraps and make the food airtight. Compactors can also be used to recycle fuel and promote sustainability. 

9)Dump trucks

dump truck (11) is used to ‘dump’ any material like soil, gravel, or dirt. They have a large open space powered by hydraulic pumps and can incline to pour down the waste. 

There are several types of dump trucks-

  • Standard dump trucks– Consist of a metal body with a bed and are powered by hydraulic pumps. The rear axles are usually raised above the ground to minimize wear and tear to the vehicle.
  • Semi-trailer end dump trucks– This kind of dump truck has a large capacity but is highly unstable in the dumping position. Here, the trailer itself has a hydraulic pump and is used to power the vehicle.
  • Transfer dump trucks– Here, a trailer is separately connected to a large container that usually runs on an electric motor. The large container is used to carry waste, snow, silt, logs without compromising the trailer’s stability. They can carry 24 to 26 tons and are extensively used in construction.
  • Truck and pup– This is very similar to the transfer dump truck. However, the pup trailer has a hydraulic pump and can run on its own.
  • Super Dump trucks– This type of truck exceeds the standard weight measurements and can be over 80,000 pounds. They do not have much practical use and are generally unstable.
  • Semi-trailer bottom dump trucks– They consist of a tractor pulling a two-axle trailer. The container is shaped like a bottomless bucket, enabling the truck to pour material in a straight line.
  • Double and triple trailer bottom dump trucks– The system here consists of a tractor that pulls one semi-trailer and one full trailer. Dragging the two trailers consumes a lot of power and makes the vehicle too heavy. These trucks are commonly used for transporting rocks and soil over a short distance.
  • Side dump trucks– These dump the material on the side rather than at the back. The side dump trucks are also equipped with hydraulic pumps and enable quicker unloading. Side dump trucks have excellent stability and do not create a mess while unloading material.
  • Articulated haulers (12)– They are muscular, off the road tricks. Articulated haulers are adapted to the rough terrain and are powered by hydraulic pumps. They are generally used in forests or places with thick vegetation.
  • Haul trucks– Haul trucks- are used in mining to carry loads from one place to another. They run on diesel engines that generate electric power.

10. Scrapers

A scraper is a large construction vehicle used to collect gravel, scraping dirt, and other unwanted substances from the ground. The vehicle has a massive wagon with bottom gates attached with blades, and it can be self-propelled or towed.

The blade attached to the vehicle scrapes up materials from the ground as the wagon moves forward. In this manner, the unwanted and dirt materials are transferred to the construction site. When the rotation of the wagon is over, the gates are closed, and the materials are transported to the construction area.

Moreover, unlike other ground clearing stuff, scraper vehicles can be used to remove moist soil from the ground surface. These vehicles are highly effective in different soil conditions like heavy soil. The versatile and adaptable machine can be utilised for numerous purposes, and it is primarily used for highway construction.

11. Agricultural tractors

Though the tractors are generally used for farm works nowadays, they are also used for construction purposes. Two-wheel single axle and four-wheel two-axle tractors are the most common vehicles used in the industry. The primary purpose of the tractors is to generate high torques at low speeds.

They possess a unique gearbox that can transform high-speed wagon rotation to lower speeds. It enhances the amount of force, and the ability of the vehicle to pull large items is increased. The modern tractors are equipped with hydraulics with power-assisted steering and brakes that can control heavy loads.

12. Conveyors

Conveyors are vehicles utilized to transport materials from one place to another, and they are built to transport goods of various weights, sizes, and shapes. Sometimes, the conveyor’s shaft is fixed with wheels that let the post revolve around the construction area.

The construction sites often use conveyors to transport heavy materials like bricks and large stones from one place to another.

13. Backhoe

A backhoe is a digging material attached to the vehicle’s digging bucket. The bucket is attached to the articulated arms, and it is significantly tied to a loader or a tractor. The pivot of the material is connected to the boom of the vehicle that can rotate around one hundred and eighty degrees.

Additionally, due to the versatility and modest size of the backhoe, they are majorly utilized in minor construction sites like road repairing or erecting a small house. They are also used to remove snow or dirt and perform small-scale drilling work in some portions of the construction site.

14. Cranes

Cranes form an essential component of the building tools. They are structured with cables and pulleys that allow people to carry heavy loads to a significant height that is impossible for ordinary people. The cranes assist construction work by lifting and lowering materials and pulling up materials horizontally.

The cranes used for the construction locations are either mobile or stationary. Large wheels fixed to the mobile cranes offer support and stability when the cranes are lifted to heights for carrying massive loads.

15. Feller Buncher

A feller bencher is also sometimes included for construction works. It is a self-propelled vehicle with attached cutting head equipment that can quickly cut a tree before felling. The essential function of a feller buncher is to cut things, hold them and place them on the ground.

Depending on the size and form of the materials to be cut, the cutting head of the vehicle is varied. It is majorly used to cut the trees placed in the construction locations.

16. Reclaimer

A reclaimer is a colossal machine used to collect bulk commodities from a massive stockpile like ores and grains. The measurement of a reclaimer is calculated in tons per hour, and it depends on the average density of the recycled objects.

Additionally, a conventional reclaimer can make movements in three various directions. It uses a collection of cables to supply electricity. The primary significance of a reclaimer in a reclaimer vehicle is to gather materials in huge quantities from a stock of materials.

17. Grader

A grader is a primary construction vehicle containing a metal blade and is used to build a flat surface. It is used for multiple projects like creating the base course for a road project, surface drainage or a strong foundation. Depending on the requirement and location of the construction project, a grader can also be used to remove a pile of snow or dirt.

These machinery vehicles are frequently seen in infrastructure projects, road construction, and building developments. They are extensively used to shape the final structure on which the pavement might be developed. The blades are manually or hydraulically moved that might be utilized for numerous functions.

18. Telehandler

The telehandlers are similar vehicles like the forklifts. A significant difference is that they possess a boom like the cranes, making a telehandler more versatile. The boom can be combined with pallet forks, a winch, a bucket, and several other attachments. Additionally, the versatility of the vehicle increases its use in several fields. The wide off-road tires of the telehandlers allow them to operate on any road.

19. Stacker

Stackers form an essential part of the construction vehicles as they are used to stack items like limestone, ores and grains in huge quantities. They can move in two different directions- forward and backward. Moreover, the boom of stackers can move up and down to facilitate the movement of materials in huge quantities. In other words, a stacker is a programmable human controlling device that can manage the work more effectively.

20. Skid Steer Loaders

A skid steer loader is an effective vehicle utilized in the construction industry. Their primary job is excavation, and the arms of the vehicle can be attached to various gadgets for completing landscape and construction projects.

The wheels of a skid steer loader do not have a rotating mechanism. The fast-moving wheels drag and skid on the ground, which is used for performing a wide range of operations.

Conclusion

There you go! You have a list of the popular construction vehicles that are generally used.

Construction vehicles are not like the typical vehicles you see every day. They are bulky, and powerful but do not gain much speed owing to their body weight.