With ever-increasing skyscrapers, construction work requires better results in a short period. To reduce the workload and human labor, construction vehicles came to the rescue.
Though you might have come across a couple of JCB bulldozers, there are more than 16 types of construction vehicles. How many of them do you already know? Here’s a rundown of all the major construction vehicles that are widely used.
Types Of Construction Vehicles
Let’s start with the obvious. Bulldozers (1) are incredibly bulky tractors equipped with metal blades in the front and rippers at the back.
Due to their sturdy built, bulldozers are used in (2) mining, building roads, apartments, and clearing land.
The metal blades come in three varieties-
- Straight blade
- Semi-Universal blade
- Universal blade
The blades are used to push or shove objects, dirt, snow, etc. and remove them from the construction site. The ripper is used to claw at the ground and break stones into smaller pieces.
As the name suggests, a trencher (3) is used to dig trenches for laying pipes and electrical wires in any neighborhood.
There are mainly 5 types of trenchers-
- Wheel trenchers– They have a giant wheel that is used in cutting roads for road maintenance.
- Chain trenchers– These have a chainsaw attached at the back that is used for cutting hard surfaces. Chain trenchers are used to digging deep surfaces required for sanitation, drainage, and other uses.
- Micro-trenchers– They are also used in cutting roads but produce very little waste. This makes them convenient to be used on roads without damaging them too much.
- Portable trenchers– As you might have guessed, these are very lightweight and are typically used in gardens or small farms that require drainage.
Trenchers can serve several purposes (4) depending on their types. They are versatile and are thoroughly used in farming.
3) Front loaders
The front loader (5) is a tractor that has a wide-mouthed bucket used to lift material from the ground. They are relatively low in cost and serve several farm activities. The best part is you can replace the bucket with other parts like forks.
Front-loaders can be used to transport heavy construction materials from one place to another. They are also used to clear thick layers of snow in a short period.
4) Hydraulic excavators
Unlike available tractors, hydraulic excavators (6) use hydraulic fluid, pumps, and motors to lift, dig, or mine construction sites. They consist of a rotating area that contains a boom, stick, cab, and
Hydraulic excavators attain great power by attaching the engine power to hydraulic pumps that provide high-pressure oil.
They are extensively used for demolition of buildings, clearing forests, mining, dreading, and others.
In recent times, manufacturers have introduced mini or compact excavators portable and even include zero tail swing.
They are ideal for small area digging. Tata Hitachi Construction Ministry, Hyundai Heavy Industries are some of the largest manufacturers of such excavators.
You have probably seen a forklift in a Walmart store. Forklifts (7) are heavy-duty vehicles that are used for loading and unloading equipment or goods. They can carry 1 to five tons of weight and are most commonly used in warehouses.
Forklifts work with the help of two hydraulic cylinders and a pair of chain pulleys. When the lift handle is pressed, the hydraulic pump sets into action and draws in air. This forces the cylinders to lift the load up.
The forks are attached to the vehicle via a pair of chain pulleys. These chain pulleys enable the forks to shift the goods to a farther distance.
6)Concrete mixer trucks
A concrete mixer truck (8) is a carrier vehicle that mixes water, cement, stones, and other components required for urban buildings.
It has a large drum with a spiral blade for mixing the constituents and converting them to a coarse paste.
The mixture remains in the liquid from inside the truck but solidifies when poured outside.
This is why the trucks always pour the mixture in arrays of buckets or containers, then transported it to the construction site.
Mixer trucks make portability easy and are available at affordable prices as well.
7) Crawler dozers
Crawler dozers (9) are robust vehicles that have tracked wheels and are suitable for rough terrain. They have more stability due to their broad surface area but are agile.
The addition of modern features like power steering and comfort makes these dozers perfect for construction work and maintaining roads.
Also, new crawler dozers come with safety precautions and are much more energy-efficient.
Compactors are used to reduce the mass and size of waste generated in any field. Technically, there are three types of compactors-
- The plate
- The rammer
- The road roller
Different compactors (10) are used to compress the junk collected by waste collection vehicles.
In agriculture, these vehicles are used to expel oxygen from food wraps and make the food airtight. Compactors can also be used to recycle fuel and promote sustainability.
A dump truck (11) is used to ‘dump’ any material like soil, gravel, or dirt. They have a large open space powered by hydraulic pumps and can incline to pour down the waste.
There are several types of dump trucks-
- Standard dump trucks– Consist of a metal body with a bed and are powered by hydraulic pumps. The rear axles are usually raised above the ground to minimize wear and tear to the vehicle.
- Semi-trailer end dump trucks– This kind of dump truck has a large capacity but is highly unstable in the dumping position. Here, the trailer itself has a hydraulic pump and is used to power the vehicle.
- Transfer dump trucks– Here, a trailer is separately connected to a large container that usually runs on an electric motor. The large container is used to carry waste, snow, silt, logs without compromising the trailer’s stability. They can carry 24 to 26 tons and are extensively used in construction.
- Truck and pup– This is very similar to the transfer dump truck. However, the pup trailer has a hydraulic pump and can run on its own.
- Super Dump trucks– This type of truck exceeds the standard weight measurements and can be over 80,000 pounds. They do not have much practical use and are generally unstable.
- Semi-trailer bottom dump trucks– They consist of a tractor pulling a two-axle trailer. The container is shaped like a bottomless bucket, enabling the truck to pour material in a straight line.
- Double and triple trailer bottom dump trucks– The system here consists of a tractor that pulls one semi-trailer and one full trailer. Dragging the two trailers consumes a lot of power and makes the vehicle too heavy. These trucks are commonly used for transporting rocks and soil over a short distance.
- Side dump trucks– These dump the material on the side rather than at the back. The side dump trucks are also equipped with hydraulic pumps and enable quicker unloading. Side dump trucks have excellent stability and do not create a mess while unloading material.
- Articulated haulers (12)– They are muscular, off the road tricks. Articulated haulers are adapted to the rough terrain and are powered by hydraulic pumps. They are generally used in forests or places with thick vegetation.
- Haul trucks– Haul trucks- are used in mining to carry loads from one place to another. They run on diesel engines that generate electric power.
There you go! You have a list of the popular construction vehicles that are generally used.
Construction vehicles are not like the typical vehicles you see every day. They are bulky, powerful but do not gain much speed owing to their body weight.